International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery

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VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles

Special Issue 4: Invited Article

Selecting Different Approaches for Palate and Pharynx Surgery: Palatopharyngeal Arch Staging System

Rodolfo Lugo-Saldaña, Karina Saldívar-Ponce, Irina González-Sáez, Daniela Hernández-Sirit, Patricia Mireles-García

Keywords : Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, Palatopharyngeal muscle, Palatal surgery, Sleep disordered breathing, Sleep surgery

Citation Information : Lugo-Saldaña R, Saldívar-Ponce K, González-Sáez I, Hernández-Sirit D, Mireles-García P. Selecting Different Approaches for Palate and Pharynx Surgery: Palatopharyngeal Arch Staging System. Int J Head Neck Surg 2019; 10 (4):92-97.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10001-1383

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


The examination of the anatomical structures involved in the upper airway collapse in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a key for integrated evaluation of patients. Our proposal is for a noninvasive classification system that guides us about the presence of anatomical differences between the palatopharyngeal muscle (PFM). The functions of the PFM are narrowing the isthmus, descending the palate, and raising the larynx during swallowing; these characteristics give the PFM a special role in the collapse of the lateral pharyngeal wall. Complete knowledge of the anatomy and classification of different variants can guide us to choose the appropriate surgical procedures for the lateral wall collapse. Until now there is not a consensus about description of the trajectory or anatomical variants of the PFM into oropharynx, the distance between both muscles, and the muscle tone. Here we also present the relationship between the lateral wall surgeries currently available (lateral pharyngoplasty by Cahali, expansion sphincteroplasty by Pang, relocation pharyngoplasty by Li, Roman blinds pharyngoplasty by Mantovani, and barbed sutures pharyngoplasty by Vicini) with the proposed classification of the palatopharyngeal arch staging system (PASS).

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