International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Surgical Planning for Resection and Reconstruction of Facial Cutaneous Malignancies

Evren Erkul, Krishna G Patel, Terry Day

Citation Information : Erkul E, Patel KG, Day T. Surgical Planning for Resection and Reconstruction of Facial Cutaneous Malignancies. Int J Head Neck Surg 2016; 7 (3):149-164.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10001-1281

Published Online: 01-12-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).


How to cite this article

Erkul E, Patel KG, Day T. Surgical Planning for Resection and Reconstruction of Facial Cutaneous Malignancies. Int J Head Neck Surg 2016;7(3):149-164.

PDF Share
  1. American Cancer Society [Accessed 2016 Jun 14]. Available from:
  2. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia. Health Promot J Austr 2011 Dec;22 Spec No:S39-S41.
  3. Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the U.S. population, 2012. JAMA Dermatol 2015 Oct;151(10):1081-1086.
  4. Skin cancer of the head and neck. Semin Plast Surg 2010 May;24(2):117-126.
  5. Distribution of Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by facial esthetic unit. Arch Plast Surg 2013 Jul;40(4):387-391.
  6. Cutaneous malignancy of the head and neck. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2015 Jul;24(3):593-613.
  7. Head and neck melanoma. Clin Plast Surg 2010 Jan;37(1):73-77.
  8. Body-site distribution of skin cancer, pre-malignant and common benign pigmented lesions excised in general practice. Br J Dermatol 2011 Jul;165(1):35-43.
  9. 7th ed. [Accessed 2016 Jun 20]. Available from:
  10. 7th ed. [Accessed 2016 Jun 20].
  11. Solar and ultraviolet radiation. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1992;55:1-316.
  12. Epidemiology of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Europe: accurate and comparable data are needed for effective public health monitoring and interventions. Br J Dermatol 2007 May;156 (Suppl 3):1-7.
  13. Squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin in relation to radiation therapy and potential modification of risk by sun exposure. Epidemiology 2007 Nov;18(6):776-784.
  14. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Skin Cancer 2011;2011:502723.
  15. Head and neck cancer in transplant recipients. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004 Apr;12(2):122-126.
  16. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: pathogenesis, current and emerging treatment options. Onco Targets Ther 2015 Aug 19;8:2157-2167.
  17. Head and neck angiosarcomas. J Craniofac Surg 2005 Jul;16(4):699-703.
  18. Skin adnexal neoplasms – part 1: an approach to tumours of the pilosebaceous unit. J Clin Pathol 2007 Feb;60(2):129-144.
  19. Skin adnexal neoplasms – part 2: an approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands. J Clin Pathol 2007 Feb;60(2):145-159.
  20. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin: the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2010 Oct;54(5):477-482.
  21. Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the head and neck: the Princess Margaret Hospital experience. Head Neck 2013 Mar;35(3):316-320.
  22. Sarcoma-like tumor of head and neck skin. Am J Surg Pathol 2014 Jul;38(7):956-965.
  23. Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma: adverse histologic features predict aggressive behavior and allow distinction from atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2012 Sep;36(9):1317-1326.
  24. Basal cell carcinoma: a comparison of shave biopsy versus punch biopsy techniques in subtype diagnosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Jul;41(1):69-71.
  25. Influence of biopsy on the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 1996 Mar-Apr;18(2):107-117.
  26. 7th ed. [Accessed 2016 Jun 20]. Available from:
  27. Surgical excision vs Mohs' micrographic surgery for basal-cell carcinoma of the face: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004 Nov 13-19;364(9447): 1766-1772.
  28. Surgical margins for basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 1987 Mar;123(3):340-344.
  29. Surgical margins for excision of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992 Aug;27(2 Pt 1):241-248.
  30. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment, part II: squamous cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods. Dermatol Surg 2015 Nov;41(11):1214-1240.
  31. Surgical margins of excision for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2004 Sep;23(3):167-173.
  32. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery in Australia I. Experience over 10 years. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005 Aug;53(2):253-260.
  33. Hedgehog pathway inhibitor therapy for locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and pooled analysis of interventional studies. JAMA Dermatol 2016 Jul 1;152(7):816-824.
  34. Evaluation of cosmetic results of a randomized trial comparing surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the face. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000 Jun;105(7):2544-2551.
  35. Postirradiation sarcomas. A single-institution study and review of the literature. Cancer 1994 May 15;73(10):2653-2662.
  36. Prevention and management of complications after radiotherapy for skull base tumors: a multidisciplinary approach. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 2013;74:163-173.
  37. Prognostic factors and the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2015:e513-e518.
  38. Is a wider margin (2 cm vs. 1 cm) for a 1.01-2.0 mm melanoma necessary? Ann Surg Oncol 2016 Jul;23(7):2336-2342.
  39. Current therapy of cutaneous melanoma. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000 Apr;105(5):1774-1799;quiz 1800-1801.
  40. Love and caring. Ethics of face and hand – an invitation to return to the heart and soul of nursing and our deep humanity. Nurs Adm Q 2003 Jul-Sep;27(3):197-202.
  41. Nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck: reconstruction. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2012 Nov;20(4):493-513.
  42. Mercel Cell Carcinoma. 7th ed. [Accessed 2016 Jun 20]. Available from:
  43. Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline. Eur J Cancer 2015 Sep;51(14):1989-2007.
  44. Lymph node metastasis in cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg 2015 Oct;41(10):1126-1129.
  45. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and the emerging role of sentinel lymph node biopsy: a literature review. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Jul;73(1):127-137.
  46. Do nodal metastases from cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck follow a clinically predictable pattern? Head Neck 2001 Sep;23(9):785-790.
  47. Scalp and forehead reconstruction using free revascularized tissue transfer. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2004 Jan-Feb;6(1):16-20.
  48. The scapular angle adds versatility to the latissimus dorsi free flap in complicated scalp reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2011 Sep;64(9):e248-e249.
  49. Wound healing by secondary intention. A cosmetic appraisal. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983 Sep;9(3):407-415.
  50. Secondary intention healing after excision of nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck: statistical evaluation of prognostic values of wound characteristics and final cosmetic results. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008 Dec;122(6):1747-1755.
  51. Clinical outcome of cutaneous flaps versus full-thickness skin grafts after Mohs surgery on the nose. Dermatol Surg 2010;36(1):23-30.
  52. Local flaps I: bilobed, rhombic, and cervicofacial. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2009 Aug;17(3):349-360.
  53. The importance of maintaining the alar-facial sulcus in nasal reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995 Jun;121(6):617-622.
  54. The forehead flap for nasal reconstruction. Arch Dermatol 2000 Nov;136(11):1365-1370.
  55. Healing of composite chondrocutaneous auricular grafts covered by skin flaps in nasal reconstructive surgery. Laryngoscope 2003 Feb;113(2):248-253.
  56. Lip and vermilion reconstruction with the facial artery musculomucosal flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000 Mar;105(3):864-872.
  57. Reconstruction of total lower lip and chin defects using the composite radial forearm – palmaris longus tendon free flap. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2000 Jan-Mar;2(1):53-56.
  58. A new technique for reconstruction of lower-lip and labial commissure defects: a proposal for the association of Abbe-Estlander and vermilion myomucosal flap techniques. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013 Jun;115(6):724-730.
  59. Extended Karapandzic flaps for near-total and total lower lip defects. Plast Reconstr Surg 2011 Mar;127(3):1199-1205.
  60. Reconstruction after resection of a lower lip squamous cell carcinoma with a submental island flap. Ear Nose Throat J 2015 Dec;94(12):E19-E21.
  61. Karapandzic flap and Bernard-Burrow-Webster flap for reconstruction of the lower lip. An Bras Dermatol 2011 Jul-Aug;86(4 Suppl 1):S156-S159.
  62. Reconstruction of midfacial defects following surgical management of skin cancer. The role of tissue expansion. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1994 Feb;20(2):133-140.
  63. Cervical rotation flaps for midface resurfacing. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991 Jan;117(1):77-82.
  64. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk for subsequent malignancy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008 Sep 3;100(17):1215-1222.
  65. Clinicopathological features of and risk factors for multiple primary melanomas. JAMA 2005 Oct;294(13):1647-1654.
  66. Reduced melanoma after regular sunscreen use: randomized trial follow-up. J Clin Oncol 2011 Jan 20;29(3):257-263.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.