Laryngeal cancer remains one of the most common airway cancers. Although the incidence has generally declined, the overall survival has actually decreased over the last 40 years despite advancements in its treatment. Treating a malignancy in this region is challenging, and management involves a balance between primary oncological control, organ and functional preservation, and minimizing treatment morbidity. Patients with laryngeal cancer require a truly multidisciplinary team approach. Surgery remains an integral part of management, with several viable organ preservation-based surgical approaches evolving over recent years. There have also been significant advancements in other nonsurgical laryngeal preservation treatment modalities, such as radiation and chemotherapy. However, there still remains a need for further research in understanding the disease, and more innovation in its treatment. Future research in the treatment of laryngeal cancer should be focused on strategies to improve locoregional control and overall survival, while reducing patient morbidity and the impact on quality of life.
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