International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Invited Review Articles

Pharyngeal Dysphagia

Jayakumar R Menon

Keywords : FEES, Pathophysiology of dysphagia, Pharyngeal dysphagia, Swallowing therapy, VFS

Citation Information : Menon JR. Pharyngeal Dysphagia. Int J Head Neck Surg 2022; 13 (1):55-61.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10001-1525

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 02-05-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Pharyngeal dysphagia may be due to different etiologies. But the commonest causes are neurological, and secondary to head and neck cancer treatments. Various stages of pharyngeal phase of swallowing can be affected. Understanding the pathophysiology and managing accordingly is the key to success. Proper history taking, clinical and instrumental evaluation are the important methods to diagnose the dysfunction. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and Video fluoroscopy (VFS) are the most commonly used instrumental evaluation techniques. Management includes alternative methods of swallowing, prevention of aspiration, swallowing therapy and interventional management.


PDF Share
  1. Pearson Jr WG, Langmore SE, Yu LB et al. Structural analysis of muscles elevating the hyolaryngeal complex. Dysphagia 2012;27(4):445–451. DOI: 10.1007/s00455-011-9392-7
  2. Diamant NE. Firing up the swallowing mechanism. Nat Med 1996;2(11):1190–1091. DOI: 10.1038/nm1196-1190
  3. Teasell R, Foley N, Fisher J, et al. The incidence, management and complications of dysphagia in patients with medullary stroke admitted to a rehabilitation unit. Dysphagia 2002;17(2):115–120 DOI: 10.1007/s00455-001-0110-8
  4. Laccourreye O, Cauchois R, Menard M, et al. Deglutition et laryngectomies partielles supracricoidiennes. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 1992;109(2):73–75.
  5. Doty RW, Richmond WH, Storey AT. Effect of medullary lesions on coordination of deglutition. Exp Neurol 1967;17(1):91–106. DOI: 10.1016/0014-4886(67)90125-2;
  6. Leonard R, Kendall K, McKenzie S et al. UES opening and cricopharyngeal bar in non dysphagic elderly and nonelderly adults. Dysphagia 2004;19(3):182–191. DOI: 10.1007/s00455-004-0005-6
  7. Eisburch A, Layden T, Bradford CR, et al. Objective assessment of swallowing dysfunction and aspiration after radiation concurrent with chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;53(1):23–28. DOI: 10.1016/s0360-3016(02)02712-8
  8. Langmore SE, Schatz K, Oslon N. Endoscopic and video fluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing and aspiration. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1991;100(8):678–681. DOI: 10.1177/000348949110000815
  9. Rosenbek JC, Robbins JA, Roecker EB, et al. A penetration–aspiration scale. Dysphagia 1996;11(2):93–98. DOI: 10.1007/BF00417897
  10. Stanciu C, Bennet JR. Upper esophageal sphincter yield pressure in normal subjects and in patients with gastro esophageal reflux. Thorax 1974;29(4):459–462. DOI: 10.1136/thx.29.4.459
  11. Geeganage C, Beavan J, Ellender S, et al. Interventions for dysphagia and nutritional supporting acute and subacute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012(10);CD000323. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000323.pub2
  12. Glanz M, Klawansky S, Stason W, et al. Functional electrostimulationin post stroke rehabilitation; a meta analysis of the randomized controlled trials. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 1996;77(6):549–553. DOI: 10.1016/s0003-9993(96)90293-2
  13. Steele CM Huckabee ML, The influence of orolingual pressure on the timing of pharyngeal pressure events. Dysphagia 2007;22(1):30–36. DOI: 10.1007/s00455-006-9037-4
  14. Shaw GY Searl JP. Botulinum toxin treatment for cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Dysphagia 2001;16(3):161–167. DOI: 10.1007/s00455-001-0074-8
  15. Cook IJ, Kahrilas PJ. AGA technical review on management of oropharyngeal dysphagia: gastro enterology. 1999;116(2):455–478. DOI: 10.1016/s0016-5085(99)70144-7
  16. Collard JM, Otte JB Kestens PJ. Endoscopic stapling technique of esophago diverticulostomy for Zenker's diverticulum. Ann Thorac Surg 1993:56(3):573–576. DOI: 10.1016/0003-4975(93)90906-x
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.