Sleep is essential for the normal functioning of a human being. It is a restorative phenomenon. Hypothalamus and ventral periaqueductal gray along with circadian and homeostatic signals regulate the sleep cycle. Sleep architecture is divided into non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) phases. Not only theoretically but even in clinical practice, it is evident that sleep deprivation has mild-to-severe effects on every system. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder seen by chest physicians, ear–nose–throat (ENT) surgeons, cardiologists, and general physicians. OSA is gaining insight of surgeons and physicians for preoperative clinical evaluation, and it is mandatory in suspected individuals. Sleep hygiene is helpful in OSA and other sleep-disordered breathing.
Sleep disorders are an increasingly important and relevant burden faced by society, impacting at the individual, community and global level. Varied presentations and lack of awareness can make accurate and timely diagnosis a challenge. Early recognition and appropriate intervention are a priority. The key characteristics, clinical presentations and management strategies of common sleep disorders such as circadian rhythm disorders, restless legs syndrome, REM behavior disorder, hypersomnia and insomnia are outlined in this review.
Sleep is the essence of productive and a healthy life. This chapter provides a comprehensive outlook for patient assessment including sleep history taking, detailed examination through general assessment as well as sleep diary. Special focus has been laid upon common and useful questionnaires which are not only inexpensive but also validated to be used in sleep apnea patients. Sleep history needs to be corroborated from the bed partner along with detailed examination from the patient. It is important to conduct the physical examination which constitutes various parameters like BMI, neck circumference, upper airway examination, etc. Efficient sleep history serves as a good predictor of sleep apnea and should not be missed before a patient undergoes polysomnography test. Usage of sleep diary has been largely underplayed in general practice, but if administered correctly it provides key information about patient's sleep hygiene and practices.