Background/objective: Transtonsillar styloidectomy is the most common surgical approach for symptom complex of styalgia. It is a minimally invasive procedure of excision of the symptomatic elongated process and remains the most preferred procedure. Materials and methods: Transoral transtonsillar styloidectomy done in 23 symptomatic cases had relief of symptoms with some needing adjuvant treatment with carbamazepine or gabapentin. Conclusion: Symptoms subside over a period of months and depend on the pathology of the syndrome, which is still to be investigated in detail. The symptoms depend of the effects of the elongated process on the nerves and over internal carotid artery rather than the length itself.
Aim: The cleft lip and palate patients undergo a series of surgical procedures from the time of their birth, wherein the primary cleft lip correction procedure is carried out. The last in the series is rhinoplasty after the maxillary skeletal base has been set right in its dynamics with the mandibular base. The degree of deformity lies in the type of cleft and its accompanying features. The timing of correction at the primary lip closure stage, allowing a repositioning of the lateral nares, the detailed examination of the nose at the time of presentation ascertains the degree of augmentation necessary. Background: The first mention of rhinoplasty dates back to the dates of Shusruta and his disciples who managed to reconstruct parts of the nose and ear, which were sliced as a part of criminal punishment. The Roman encyclopedist published the techniques of reconstruction, followed by the Europeans. By the 11th century, the Arabs converted Shushruta's book into Sanskrit, and this spread to the Western atmosphere. Evidence for a free flap graft and a forehead graft that were adopted and published by Doctors Cruzo and Findlay in 1794 are the first steps to the modern rhinoplasty techniques. Review results: The correction of the nose at the primary surgery of the cleft lip was widely accepted to reduce the gross deformities that would manifest if the small corrections were not made appropriately the first time. The caudal resection of septae was identified as the reason for the growth deformities that happened secondarily. The secondary rhinoplasty was to be performed as a final procedure after the growth phase when all other surgical procedures were done and dealt with leaving an L-shaped strut of the septae at the dorsal, and the caudal end was advocated for a stable result of the septum without any buckling and further deformity. Conclusion: The key to performing a near-perfect procedure lies in the clinical assessment at the time of presurgical presentation.
Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an aggressive salivary gland malignant tumor. Diagnosis is difficult as the residual-mixed tumor is small and poorly understood due to the presence of various subtypes. Adenoma carcinoma and salivary duct carcinoma are two common subtypes. Prognostic factors are tumor size, grade, and clinical and pathological stages.
Background: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is a benign tumor most common in major salivary glands. PA of pterygomaxillary space (PMS) is rare. Only one case of PA arising from the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) was reported. We are presenting a second case, its presentation and surgical management, which is different and less morbid from the recently described reports. Case description: A 40-year-old female presented with ill-defined right cheek swelling for the last 5 years. On evaluation, there was a firm mass in the PMS, which was diagnosed as PA. Surgical excision was planned with sublabial incision combined with lip split, which could entirely reach, delineate, and remove the tumor in toto. The patient has recovered well and was discharged on the 3rd day. Conclusions: Pleomorphic adenomas of PMS present late due to their anatomical location and indolent course. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan is an important diagnostic tool. Fine-needle aspiration cytology from the buccal aspect reveals the probable histopathology. Sublabial incision with lip split is more useful in excising the moderate-sized tumors.
Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of cranial sutures which can result in neurological abnormalities, facial and skull deformations, and increased intracranial pressure. It can be diagnosed by physical examination, the use of plain film X-rays, computed tomography (CT) exams, or with the use of ultrasound. If caught within the first few months of life, or prenatally, craniosynostosis can be treated endoscopically with minimal invasiveness. Those cases that are discovered after the first 6 months of life can be treated surgically with cranial vault remodeling. Both procedures have an excellent success rate and a low recurrence rate. In this case report, a 6-month-old healthy boy with deformity of the left forehead and orbit that is caused by frontal plagiocephaly and coronal unilateral synostosis is presented. This abnormality was corrected by frontal craniotomy and fronto-orbital complex advancement under general anesthesia.