Lingual thyroid (LT) is a rare embryological anomaly and originates from failure of the thyroid gland to descend from the foramen cecum to its normal eutopic prelaryngeal site. Lingual thyroid is the most frequent ectopic location of the thyroid gland. Its clinical incidence varies between 1:4000 and 1:10000. The purpose of this case series was to discuss a series of cases of LT gland its incidence, clinical presentation, sex ratio, age group, endocrine status, radiological features and appropriate surgical approaches.
Materials and methods
Six patients of LT were diagnosed who presented to our institution in a period of 6 months out of 225 thyroid cases, out of 14539 outpatient department (OPD) patients. The LT is often asymptomatic but may cause dysphagia, dysphonia with stomatolalia, upper airway obstruction and hemorrhage, often with hypothyroidism. Treatment of a LT depends on the severity of symptoms, the age of the patient, any precipitating factors, such as puberty or pregnancy.
Relevant demographic, clinic-pathological and radiological data were recorded. Four of six were treated conservatively. One underwent complete surgical excision and one pregnant lady in first trimester kept under observation and regular follow-up.
We found female predominance than male with ratio of 5:1. Our study had high prevalence of LT of 1:2400. Thyroid scintigraphy plays the most important role in diagnosing LT, but ultrasonography contributes as well. In cases of symptomatic disease, surgery is the treatment of choice, followed by radioiodine ablation and levothyroxine suppression therapy in more refractory cases.
How to cite this article
Patil YS, Rajashekhar RP, Karodpati NS, Thomas J. Lingual Thyroid: A Case Series of Six Lingual Thy-roid with Incidence and Different Treatment Modalities. Int J Head Neck Surg 2015;6(3):103-108.